Mikhail Yurjevich Lermontov (3  October 1814, Москва — 15  July 1841, Pyatigorsk) — русский поэт, novelist, playwright, painter. Lermontov, which combines civil, philosophical and personal reasons, meeting the vital needs of the spiritual life of Russian society, It marked a new flowering of Russian literature and had a great impact on the most prominent Russian writers and poets of the XIX and XX centuries. Lermontov's works have received great response in painting, theater, filmography. His poems have become a true treasure trove for the opera, Symphony of creativity and romance. Many of them have become folk songs.
Rhode Lermontov came from Scotland and went back to the mythical bard-prophet Thomas the Rhymer. AT 1613 , one of the members of this genus, lieutenant of the Polish Army, Georg (George) Lermont (about 1596-1633 or 1634), was captured by the troops of Prince Dmitry Pozharsky at the surrender of the Polish-Lithuanian garrison fortress and White, among others, the so-called "Bielski Germans" entered the service of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich. Learmonth moved to Orthodoxy and became, under the name Zhivago, the founder of a noble Russian family name Lermontov. In the rank of captain Russian Reitarska order he was killed at the siege of Smolensk. The British company Oxford Ancestors, component genealogies, carried out work to verify the origin of this version of Lermontov by DNA analysis. However, to detect the relationship between modern British and descendants Lermontov Mikhail Lermontov failed.
His alleged Scottish roots Lermontov dedicated the poem "Desire". In his youth Lermontov has associated his name with the Spanish statesman of the early XVII century, Francisco Lerma. These fantasies are reflected in the poet wrote an imaginary portrait of Lerma, as well as in the drama "The Spaniards".
Save the document with respect to his great-grandfather, Mikhail Lermontov's paternal, Yuri Petrovich Lermontov, pupil Gentry Cadet Corps. At this time the race lermontovykh enjoyed more prosperity; Seedy began with generations, closest to the time of the poet.
according to the memoirs, collected by local historian chembarskim P. TO. Shugaeva (1855—1917), the poet's father, too Yuri Petrovich Lermontov (1787—1831), "I was of medium height, rare, handsome and well slozhon; в общем, it can be called in the full sense of the word elegant man; he was good, but terribly hot-tempered ". Before his marriage to Maria Mikhailovna Arsenieva, Yuri Petrovich retired with the rank of infantry captain. He had sisters, living in Moscow.
Poet grandfather on the maternal side, Mikhail Vasilyevich Arseniev (8.11.1768 — 2.1.1810), retired lieutenant Guard, He married at the end of 1794 or early 1795 in Moscow Elizabeth Alekseevne Stolypin (1773—1845), then I bought "almost nothing" in the Naryshkin in Chembarskom County Penza province village Tarkhany, where he lived with his wife.
This village was founded in the XVIII century Naryshkin, who settled there their serfs (Moscow and Vladimir estates) the number of desperate thieves, thugs and ossified fanaticism splitters. They talked for a long time on the suburban dialect dominant "o".
During pugachovskogo uprising in the village came the rebel troops. Provident village elder was able to advance all the discontented ublagotvorit, distributing nearly all farmers manor bread, and therefore it was not hanged.
M. AT. Arsenyev "was of medium height, Apollo, a stately, strong-built; He came from a good old noble family ". I loved to arrange various entertainment and features some eccentricity: He wrote his estate in Moscow dwarf.
Elizabeth A. Arsenyev (1773-1845's.), grandma M. YU. Lermontov
Elizabeth A., the poet's grandmother, It was "not particularly beautiful, tall, severe and somewhat clumsy ". He has a remarkable mind, will power and business acumen. It came from a famous family of Stolypin. Her father, Alexei Stolypin Emelianovich, several years, was elected provincial leader of the Penza nobility. His family was 11 children; Elizabeth A. was the first child. One of her brothers, Alexander, He served as adjutant of Suvorov, the other two - Nikolai and Dimitri - went to the generals; one became a senator, and was friends with Speransky, two elected leaders of the provincial nobility in Saratov and Penza. One of her sisters was married to the vice-governor of Moscow, the other - for the general.
After birth 17 (28) Martha 1795 , the only daughter, Mary, Elizabeth A. ill woman's disease. As a result, Mikhail became friends with a neighbor on the estate, landowner Mansyrovoy, whose husband was a long time abroad in the army. 2 (14) January 1810 of the year, learned during the Christmas tree, he arranged for his daughter, for the return of her husband's home Mansyrovoy, Mikhail took poison. Elizabeth A., stated: "Dog dog's death", with her daughter at the funeral of time left to Penza. Mikhail Vasilievich was buried in the family vault in Tarkhany.
Elizabeth A. began to manage their own estate. serfs, which she was about 600 shower, held in austerity - although, Unlike other landowners, He never applied to them corporal punishment. The most severe punishment she had shaved half of the heads of the guilty man, or cut plait the fortress.
Maria M. Lermontov (1795-1817's.), M mother. YU. Lermontov
Manor Yuri Petrovich Lermontov - Kropotovka, Efremov County Tula province (now the village Kropotovo-Lermontov Stanovlyansky district of Lipetsk region) - Located next to the village of Vasilyevsky, belonging to the genus Arseniev. Married to Mary M. Yuri Petrovich went, when she was not yet, and 17 years old,- as they said, "I jumped out of the heat". But Yuri Petrovich it was a brilliant party.
After the wedding, the family settled in Lermontov Tarkhany. However, to give birth to their, was not very strong, young wife Yuri Petrovich povoz in Moscow, where they could count on the help of experienced doctors. There, on the night of 2 (14) on October 3 (15) October 1814 of the year, in a house opposite the Red Gate (Now this place is a tall building with a commemorative plaque M. YU. Lermontov), He was born the future great Russian poet.
11 (23) October at the Church of the Three Hierarchs at the Beautiful gate of the newborn baptized Mikhail Lermontov. Godmother has become a grandmother - Elizabeth A. Arsenyev. She is, nedolyublivavshaya zyatya, He insisted, to a boy named Peter is not (I wanted a father), and Michael - in honor of his grandfather, Mikhail Vasilyevich Arseniev.
there is an opinion, that immediately after the birth of a grandson grandmother Arsenyev seven miles from Tarhan founded new village, which was named in his honor - the Mikhailovsky (in fact, St Michael's farm was founded before the birth of his grandson Arsenieva).
The first biography of Mikhail Lermontov, Pavel Viskovatov, He noted, that his mother, Mary M., It was "endowed with soul music". She often played music on the piano, holding his young son on his lap, and purporting to be from her Mikhail inherited "his extraordinary nervousness".
Lermontov marital happiness was short-lived. "Yuri Petrovich had become indifferent to his wife for the same reason, as well as his mother-in-law to the; therefore Yuri Petrovich started the intimate relationship with his son bonnoy, a young German woman, Cecilia Feodorovna, and, Besides, with the courtyard ... The storm broke after a trip Yuri Petrovich and Maria Mikhailovna visit, neighbors Golovnin ... Going back to Tarkhany, Mary M. began to reproach her husband for treason; then the ardent and irritable Yuri Petrovich was withdrawn from these reproaches himself and hit Marya Mikhailovna very strong fist in the face, that was the reason then to an intolerable situation, which established the family lermontovykh. Since that time, with incredible rapidity developed illness Maria Mikhailovna, subsequently passed over into consumption, and that brought her to the grave prematurely. After the death and burial of Maria Mikhailovna ... Yuri Petrovich nothing more to do but, How to go in their own little generic Tula estate Kropotovku, which he did in a short time, leaving his son, as a child, in the care of his grandmother Elizabeth Alekseevna ... ». There is another version of the family life of the parents of the poet.
Mary M. was buried in the same crypt, that her father. her monument, installed in the chapel, built over the tomb, crowned by a broken anchor - a symbol of unhappy family life. The inscription on the monument: "Under this stone lies the body of Mary Mikhailovna Lermontova, née Arsenieva, deceased 1817 On February 24 day, on Saturday; her life was 21 year 11 months and 7 days ".
Elizabeth A. Arsenyev, survived by her husband, daughter, in-law and grandson, also buried in the crypt. Monument it has no.
Tarkhany village to the village of St. Michael's, after the death of Elizabeth Alekseevna Arsenieva passed, in his will, to her brother Afanasy Alekseevich Stolypin, and then to his son last - Alexey Afanasievich.
1 December 1974 year next to the chapel Arseniev, thanks to the efforts of the famous Soviet lermontovedov Irakli Andronicus and 2nd Secretary of the Penza Regional Committee of the Communist Party George Myasnikov, He was reburied and the poet's father - Yuri Petrovich Lermontov (his remains were moved from the village of Sipovo Lipetsk region).
the poet's grandmother, Elizabeth A. Arsenyev, passionately fond of her grandson, who as a child was not very strong. Vigorous and persistent, She does her best, to give it everything, what can only qualify successor kind lermontovykh. About the feelings and interests of the father she did not care.
Lermontov in youth works very fully and accurately reproduces the events and actors of his personal life. The drama with the German title - «Menschen und Leidenschaften» - told discord between his father and grandmother.
Lermontov's father did not have the means to raise a son so, as one would an aristocratic relatives, - and Arsenyev, having the ability to spend on his grandson "of four thousand a year to study different languages", I took him with persuasion to educate 16 years old, make his sole heir and throughout consult with his father. But the latter condition is not fulfilled; even meeting with the son of his father met insurmountable obstacles from the Arseniev.
A child from the very beginning was to be aware of this unnatural position. His childhood took place in a mansion grandmother - in the village of the Penza province Tarkhany. Boy surrounded by love and care - but bright childhood memories, peculiar age, he had no.
The unfinished youthful "Tale" Lermontov describes childhood Sasha Arbenina, double of the author. Sasha and six years of age reveals a penchant for dreaming, craving for anything heroic, majestic and rugged. Lermontov was born sickly and suffered all childhood scrofula; but the disease is developed in the child and the extraordinary moral energy. A painful condition of the child require so much attention, grandma, I do not regretting for his grandson, I hired him to Dr. Anselm Lewis (Levy) - a Jew from France, main duty was to care and medical supervision for Michael.
In "Tale" is recognized as the effect of disease on the mind and character of the hero: "He learned to think ... deprived of the opportunity to entertain ordinary pastimes of children, Sasha began to look for them in itself. Imagination was a new toy for him ... In the course of painful insomnia, panting between hot pads, he was accustomed to overcome sufferings of the body, carried away by day-dreams of the soul ... Probably, that early mental development of many prevented his recovery ... "
This early development was a source of grief for Lermontov: none of the others was not only able to meet the "day-dreams of his soul", but I did not even notice them. Here lies the main reasons for his future poetry "disappointment". The sullen child growing contempt for everyday life around. Vsё foreignness, hostility she aroused in him warm sympathy: he is lonely and unhappy, - all the loneliness and someone else's misfortune, derived from human misunderstanding, indifference or small selfishness, it seems to him his. At its heart live near a sense of alienation among people and an irresistible thirst for native soul, - the same lonely, close to the poet and his day-dreams, may be, sufferings. As a result, "In my anguish Childishness loves sultry // Oh, I began to realize my soul troubled ".
10-year-old Michael's grandmother drove into the Caucasus, on the water. Here he met a girl of nine years old - and the first time he woke up unusually deep feeling, leaving the memory of a lifetime; but first to him obscure and unexplained. Two years later, the poet tells about a new hobby, dedicating his poem "To Genius".
First love is inextricably merged with overwhelming impressions of the Caucasus. "Caucasian Mountains are sacred to me",- Lermontov wrote. They combined all expensive, what lived in the soul of the poet-child.
Since the fall 1825 year begin more or less regular training sessions Lermontov, but the selection of teachers - French Capet and fled from Turkey Greek - was unsuccessful. Greek very soon gave up teaching classes and engaged in furrier fishing. Француз, obviously, not inspired Lermontov special interest in French language and literature: in copybooks French poet poems very early giving way to Russian. However, having Tarkhany great library, Lermontov, addicted to reading, he studied under the direction of self-education teachers and mastered not only in European languages (English, German and French writers he read in the original), but also perfectly studied European culture in general and literature in particular,.
Fifteen-year boy, he regrets, not heard as a child of Russian folk tales: "They, right, more poetry, than in the whole of French literature ". His captivating mysterious, but courageous images outcasts of human society - the corsairs, criminals, prisoners, prisoners.
Two years later, after his return from the Caucasus, Lermontov's grandmother drove to Moscow, where in 1829-1832 gg. rented accommodation for a small one-storey wooden (mezzanine) mansion on Malaya Molchanovka. She began to prepare his grandson to enter the university boarding school - once in the 4th grade. His teachers were Zinoviev (a teacher of Latin and Russian language at the guest house) Frenchman Gondrot, a former colonel in Napoleon's Guard. The last change in the 1829 Englishman year Vindson, Lermontov acquainted with English literature. The guesthouse future poet learned literacy and mathematics. After M training. YU. Lermontov mastered four languages, He played four instruments (seven-string guitar, violin, Cello and Piano), fond of painting and even owned a needlework technique.
The guesthouse Lermontov remained for about two years. Here, under the leadership of Zinoviev and Merzlyakov, inoculated taste for literature: There is a "meeting of the Literature", young people tried their hand at self-creation, there was even a magazine with the main participation of Lermontov.
Poet fervently began to read; he first absorbed Schiller, especially his youthful tragedies; then it is assumed to be Shakespeare. In a letter to a relative "stands up for the honor of his", He cites a scene from "Hamlet".
Still looking for native soul Lermontov, enjoys the friendships with one, then another comrade, frustrated, resents the frivolity and the betrayal of friends. Recently, his stay in the guest house (1829 year) It mentioned in the works of the poet's unusually grim disappointment, the source of which was a very real drama in his personal life.
The term of his education under the guidance of her grandmother came to an end. Father often came to visit his son in boarding school, and the relationship with his mother-in deteriorated to an extreme degree. The fight developed in front of Mikhail Yurevich; she is depicted in detail in his youth drama. Grandmother, Recalling its lonely old age, and appealing to a sense of gratitude grandson, He won over his son-in, threatened, as before, unsubscribe all their movable and immovable property in the genus Stolypins, If grandson at the insistence of his father's leave from her. Yuri Petrovich had to retreat, Although father and son were tied to each other. Отец, по-видимому, as no one else knew, how gifted his son: It is evidenced by his last letter to his son.
Poems of this time - a vivid reflection of the experienced poet. He has a penchant for memories: present, obviously, little consolation. "My spirit is gone out and become old", - he says,, and only "vague monument past years cute" it "kind". Loneliness becomes helpless complaint - depression; boy ready to break with the outside world, It creates "in his mind" "the other world and the existence of other images", He considers himself a "destiny marked", "Victim in the middle of the steppes", "Son of nature".
Him "the earthly world too small", gusts of his "dispirited burden deceptions", before him the specter of premature aging ... In these effusions, of course, many youth games in the terrible feelings and heroic mood, but they are based on is certainly sincere grief boys, undoubted spiritual dissonance with the surrounding reality.
TO 1829 year are the first sketch of the "Demon" and the poem "Monologue", forebode "Duma". Poet abandons his inspirations, comparing his life with autumn day, and draws a "tortured soul" Demon, living without faith, with contempt and indifference to "all the world". A bit later,, mourning father, he himself and calls him "the victims of the lot of the ground": "You gave me life, but happiness is not given!..»
The first youthful enthusiasm
spring 1830 , the noble guest house has been converted into a gymnasium, Lermontov left him. The summer he spent in Serednikovo, suburban estate of her grandmother's brother, Stolypin. Currently, there was erected a monument with an inscription on the front side: "M. YU. Lermontov 1914 year, This obelisk raised in his memory stay in 1830-1831,. in Srednikove ". The back side contains the words: "The singer of sorrow and love ...".
Not far from Serednikovo other relatives lived Lermontov - Vereshchagin; Alexander Vereshchagin introduced him to his girlfriend, Catherine Sushkova, as a neighbor of the estate. Sushkova, subsequently Khvostov, I leave a note about this acquaintance. Their content - the real "love affair", divided into two parts: in the first - triumphant and mocking character, Sushkova, the second - cold and even cruel vengeful hero, Lermontov.
Sixteen year old "boy", prone to "sentimental judgments", homely, kosolapıy, with red eyes, with upturned nose and a sarcastic smile, least of all could seem cavalier interesting for young ladies. In response to his senses he was offered "a top or a rope", treated to burgers made from sawdust. Sushkova, many years after the event, He portrayed the poet's illness a hopeless passion and even a poem attributed to himself, Lermontov devoted to other girl - Varenke Lopukhina, his neighbor in a Moscow apartment on Malaya Molchanovka: to her he felt before the end of his life the most profound sense of, ever caused in him a woman.
In the same summer 1830 Lermontov, the attention focused on the person and the poetry of Byron; the first time he compares himself with the English poet, He is aware of the similarity of their moral world with Byron, devotes several poems of the Polish revolution. Hardly, in view of all this,, fascination with the poet's "black-eyed" beauty, ie Sushkova, can recognize such all-consuming and tragic, his character draws itself. But that did not stop "novel" to make a new bitterness in the soul of a poet; it subsequently proves it really cruel revenge - one of his responses to human callousness, lightly poisoned his "childish days", gasivshee in his soul "divine fire". AT 1830 by Lermontov wrote a poem called "prediction" ("There will come a year, / Russia black year, / When the kings of the crown will fall ... ").
In the same year, an acquaintance of the poet Natalia Ivanova Feodorovna, - mysterious stranger H. F. AND., whose initials could reveal Irakli Andronikov. S dedicated so-called "Peano cycle" of about thirty verses. Relationship with Ivanova originally developed differently, than Sushkova, - Lermontov first felt mutual affection. Soon, however, their relationship comes incomprehensible change, ardent, young poet prefer a more experienced and wealthy rival.
To summer 1831 year in the works Lermontov becomes a key theme of betrayal, infidelity. From the "Ivanovo" cycle of poems appears, how painfully experienced this feeling of a poet. In verse, converts to H. F. Ivanova, contains no direct references to the causes of heart of the drama of two people, in the first place only the very feeling of unrequited love, intermittent reflections on the bitter fate of the poet. This feeling is more complicated than with a sense of, described in the cycle to Sushkova: poet inhibits not only the lack of reciprocity, how to evaluate the reluctance rich spiritual world of the poet.
At the same time, outcast hero grateful to my beloved for the uplifting love, which helped him to better understand their vocation of the poet. Hearty meal accompanied by reproaches to his faithless beloved for, she steals it from Poetry. At the same time, it is poetry able to immortalize the feeling of love:
But for heaven no graves.
When I am dust, my dreams,
Though they will not understand, surprised light
bless; and you, my angel, you
With me will not die: my love
You give immortal life again;
With the name of my will repeat
Your: to the dead that they separate?
Poet's Love becomes a hindrance to poetic inspiration and creative freedom. Lyrical fills contradictory range of feelings: tenderness and passion struggling in him with innate pride and volnolyubiya.
While studying at the University of Moscow in 1830-1832 years Lermontov lived in the house of his grandmother Elizabeth Alekseevna Arsenieva, to address: Moscow, small Molchanovka, 2. Now here is a museum of the poet.
From september 1830 Lermontov, the number of students of the Moscow University, first at the "moral-political department", then on the "verbal".
Serious mental life developed outside the university, in student circles, but Lermontov does not fit with any of them. U care, undoubtedly, greater tendency to secular society, than distracted friendly conversations: He is by nature an observer of real life. Disappeared feeling young, nothing marred credulity, lost interest in the ability to respond to the sense of friendship, the slightest glimmer of sympathy. His moral world was a different kind, than his comrades, enthusiastic Hegelians and aesthetics.
He at least respected their university: "Light temple of science," he calls the "holy place", describing a desperate disregard of the students to the priests of this temple. He knows about the arrogant philosophical "debates" Youth, but he did not take part in them. is he, probably, I was not even familiar with the most ardent debater - later a famous critic, although one of the heroes of his student drama "Strange Man" is the name of Belinsky, which indirectly indicates an uneasy relationship to the ideals of Lermontov, preached an enthusiastic youth, among which he had to learn.
The protagonist - Vladimir - embodies the author; his mouth was a poet confesses in a painful contradiction of his nature. Vladimir knows selfishness and pettiness of people - and still can not leave their society: "I'm alone, it seems to me, that nobody loves me, no one cares about me, - and it's so hard!». More important than the drama as an expression of social ideas of the poet. A guy tells his friend Vladimir and, Belinsky - opponents of serfdom, - the atrocities landowner and other peasant hardships. The story leads Vladimir anger, He pulls out his cry: "ABOUT, my country! my country!», - Belinsky and forcing peasants to render assistance.
Lermontov university years for poetic activity proved highly fruitful. His talent matured quickly, the spirit world determined sharply. Lermontov diligently attends the Moscow salons, балы, maskaradы. He knows the real value of these entertainment, but can be fun, to share the pleasure of other. Superficial observers seemed quite unnatural violent and proud poetry of Lermontov in its secular talents.
They were ready to demonic and his disappointment - considered "drapery", "happy, laid-back kind of '- recognize the true Lermontov property, and burning "sadness" and "anger" of his poetry - poetic pretense and contingent masquerade. But it was poetry and sincere sentiments echo Lermontov. "I was saved by the inspiration of the petty vanities", - he wrote and was given to creativity, as the only pure and high enjoyment. "Shine", in his opinion, and eliminates all oposhlivaet, It smoothes the personal nuances in the characters of people, Etches any originality, It leads to the same level of all animate dummy. humble man, "Light" teaches him to be happy it is able to impersonality and humility, It fills him with a sense of complacency, kills any possibility of moral development.
Lermontov himself afraid to undergo such a fate; more than ever, it hides their intimate thoughts of the people, armed with ridicule and contempt, sometimes playing the role of a kind of small or desperate seeker secular adventure. In the privacy of his impressions are remembered Caucasus - the mighty and noble, a single feature does not like trivia and infirmities refined society.
He repeats the dreams of poets of the last century about the natural state, free from the "chains of decency", of gold and honors, from mutual hostility people. He can not afford, to "unrealizable desires" were invested in our soul, so we searched in vain for "in itself and in the world of perfection". His mood - disappointing activity of moral strength, disappointment in the negative phenomena of society, in the positive tasks of the charm of the name of the human spirit.
These motifs are well defined during the stay Lermontov at Moscow University, of which he is therefore preserved the memory, as a "holy place".
Lermontov not stayed at the university and two years; issued him a certificate of dismissal says, "at his own request" - but a petition, according to legend, It was forced student history with one of the least respectable professors Malov. WITH 18 June 1832 Lermontov, the longer the number of students.
Comments to "memories" P. F. Vistengofa specify, Lermontov left Moscow University in the spring 1832 g. At the same time of four semesters of his first visit did not take place because of the quarantine on the occasion of the cholera epidemic, Second semester classes will not be adjusted in part because of "malovskoy stories», and then translated into verbal Lermontoff compartment. There, rehearsals exams on rhetoric (P. AT. Pobedonostsev), as well as heraldry and numismatics (M. WITH. Gastev) Lermontov, I find reading over the program and at the same time ignorance of lecture material, He entered into a dispute with the examiner; after explaining the administration next to his name in the list of students appeared litter: lat. plan to go ("Consulted to leave").
He went to St. Petersburg with the intention once again to go to university, but he refused to deduct two years, conducted at Moscow University, offering to do again on 1 course. Lermontov so long the students did not like, and he, under the influence of St. Petersburg relatives, primarily Mongo Stolypin, in defiance of their own plans, He goes to the school guard sub-ensigns and cavalry cadets. This career change and meet the wishes of the grandmother.
Lermontov remained at the school two "ill-fated year", as he puts it himself. On the mental development of the students, no one thought; they "were not allowed to read books purely literary content". The school published a magazine, but the nature of it is quite obvious from the poems of Lermontov, included in this body: "Ulanša", "Peterhof holiday" ...
On the eve of entering the school Lermontov wrote a poem "Sail"; "Rebellious" Sail, "I am asking the storm" in moments of imperturbable rest - it's the same with childhood restless soul of a poet. "He sought perfection in others, and he - he was not better than them ", - he says, by the mouth of the hero of "The Angel of Death" of the poem, written more in Moscow.
In lermontovedenii there is a perception that, that for two years the cadet nothing substantial Lermontov not created. Really, in Tomiko poems over the years we find only a few "Junker prayers". But we should not forget that, Lermontov pays so little attention to poetry, not because, that is completely immersed in rampant Junker, but because, it works in a different genre: Lermontov wrote a historical novel entitled Pugachevshchina, which will remain unfinished and will go down in literary history as the novel "Vadim". Besides, he wrote several poems and more and more interested in drama. A life, he leads, and that causes genuine concern in his Moscow friends, It gives him the chance to explore life in its fullness. And this knowledge of life, excellent knowledge of human psychology, he possessed at the time of his Junkers, reflected in his best works.
Junker zabiyachestvo binge and brought him Now the most comfortable environment for any desired "imperfections". Lermontov in no way lag behind comrades, was the first member of all the adventures - but here the chosen nature impacted immediately after the most, по-видимому, unaccountable fun. As in Moscow society, and revels in the cadet Lermontov was able to preserve their "best part", creative force; in his letters is heard sometimes bitter regret of past dreams, cruel flagellation need for "sensual pleasure". all, who believed in the talent of the poet, It became afraid for his future. Vereshchagin, invariable each Lermontov, in the name of his talent he implored his "firm hold on its way". Lermontov described the fun cadets, including erotic, in his poems. These youthful poems, and contained obscene words, Lermontov won first poetic glory.
AT 1832 year in the arena the school guard sub-ensigns horse Lermontov hit in the right leg, smashed it to the bone. Lermontov was lying in the hospital, He is treated by known doctor H. F. Arendt. Later, the poet was discharged from the hospital, but the doctor visited him in the house of E. BUT. Arsenieva.
Coming out of school (22 November 1834 city) cornet in the Life Guards Hussar Regiment, Lermontov still lives among the hobbies and reproaches of his conscience; among the passionate impulses and doubts, bordering on despair. About them, he wrote to his friend Mary Lopukhina; but annoying all the forces, to his comrades and "light" is not suspected his "Hamlet" sentiment.
People, close knowing it, like Vereshchagin, We were confident in his "good character" and "loving heart"; but Lermontov considered it degrading to be the kind and loving to the "arrogant buffoon" - "light". in front of, He wants to show relentless in words, violent in his actions, in that whatever was to pass the inexorable tyrant female hearts. That's when it's time for payback Sushkova.
Lermontov-pirate, the heir to a large fortune, It costs nothing to captivate the heart once mocking beauty, upset her marriage with Lopukhin. Then retreat began: Lermontov took this form of treatment to Sushkova, she was immediately compromised in the eyes of "light", hitting a ridiculous situation the heroine of the novel failed. Lermontov was a complete break with Sushkova - and he wrote on it the name of an anonymous letter warning against himself, I sent a letter to the relatives and the unfortunate girl, According to him, has made "thunder and lightning".
Then, at a meeting with the victim, he played the role of goggle, disappointed knight, as expressly stated in the last explanation, that he does not love her and, it seems, I never liked. Всё это, besides scenes of separation, described by Lermontov in a letter to Vereshchagina, And he sees a "cheerful side of history". The only time Lermontov afford not to write a novel, and "live it" in real life, indirect history on notes, as it will in the near future to do it Petchorin.
Completely indifferent to the service, neistoshtimыy in leprosy, Lermontov wrote drinking songs of the casual genre - and at the same time such works, like me, Mother of God, now with a prayer ... ".
Until now, poetic talent Lermontov, was known only to officers and secular circles. His first works, get into print, - "Hajji Bow", It fell into the "Library for Reading" without his knowledge, and after this involuntary, but successful debut, Lermontov did not want to publish his poems. Death of Pushkin Lermontov showed to the Russian public in full force poetic talent. Lermontov was sick, when it made a terrible event. He had heard conflicting rumors; "many", he says, "Especially the ladies, justified the opponent Pushkin ", because Pushkin was duron and a jealous and had no right to demand love from his wife.
In late January, the same doctor H. F. Arendt, visiting a sick Lermontov, I told him the details of the duel and the death of Pushkin.
Involuntary indignation swept Lermontov, and he "poured out the bitterness of heart on paper". The poem "Death of the Poet" (1837 city) first ended with the words "and on his lips print". It spread rapidly "in the lists", It caused a storm in the high society and new praise Dantes. Finally, one of Lermontov's relatives, n. Stolypin, It has become in the eyes of his temper blame in relation to such a "gentleman", like Dantes. Lermontov was furious, He ordered the guest to go out, and in a fit of passionate anger sketched final 16 lines - "And you, arrogant descendants ... ".
Followed by the arrest and trial, It is overseen by the Emperor himself; Lermontov stood for Pushkin's friends, especially Zhukovsky, close to the Imperial family, besides grandmother, which had a secular communication, I did everything, to soften the fate of the only grandson. Some time later, the cornet Lermontov was transferred to "the same rank", ie ensign, in the Nizhny Novgorod Dragoon Regiment, acting in the Caucasus. The poet went into exile, followed by the general attention: there were also a passionate sympathy, and its hidden enmity.
First stay in the Caucasus and its influence on the work
First stay Lermontov in the Caucasus lasted only a few months. Thanks to the efforts of the grandmother he was first transferred to the returned rank of cornet in the Life Guards Grodno Hussars, located in the province of Novgorod, and then - in April 1838 year - was transferred to the Life Guard Hussar Regiment of His Majesty. With shelves Lermontov passed also through the territory of Azerbaijan (.Neither (Nuxa?), Cuba, Şemahı). Despite the brevity of life in the Caucasus, Lermontov could change dramatically morally. Impressions of the nature of the Caucasus, life highlanders, Caucasian folklore formed the basis of many works of Lermontov.
Nature riveted his attention; he is ready to "lifetime" sit and admire her beauty; if society has lost appeal for him, youthful cheerfulness disappeared, and even society ladies noticed "black melancholy" in his face. Instinct psychologist poet vlok it, but, Wednesday people. It is little appreciated, even less understood, but bitterness and anger to boil in it, and on paper laid down new fiery speeches, in the imagination evolved immortal images.
Lermontov returned to St. Petersburg 'light', again playing the role of a lion, especially, Now that he was looked after by all lovers of celebrities and heroes; but while he ponders a mighty way, in his youth agitated his imagination. Caucasus updated long-standing dreams; create a "Demon" and "Mtsyri".
"A few years ago,
There, Where, plums, make noise,
embracing, if two sisters,
Jet Aragvi and Kura ... "
And so, another poem conceived were long. On the "Demon" So I think more in Moscow, before entering university, later I started a few times and reworked the poem; the emergence of "Novice", undoubtedly, hiding in the junior note Lermontov, also from the Moscow period: "Write notes young monk: 17 years old. From childhood he was in the monastery, apart from the holy books do not read ... Good soul languishes. ideals ".
At the heart of the "Demon" is the consciousness of being alone among the entire universe. Demonic traits in Lermontov: proud soul, alienation from the world and contempt for the petty passions and cowardice. The demon world is small and pitiful; Novice to - the world hated, because there is no will, no ideals incarnation, educated son of an ardent imagination of nature, No flame outcome mighty, from the early years living in the chest. "Novice" and "Demon" complement each other.
The difference between them - not a psychological, and the outer, historical. Demon rich experience, He watched humankind for centuries - and learned to despise people consciously and indifferently. Novice killed in blossoming youth, in the first impulse of the will and happiness; but this impulse to the extent determined and mighty, that the young prisoner manages to rise to the ideal height demonism.
Several years of painful slavery and loneliness, Then a few hours of admiration freedom and greatness of nature in it suppressed the voice of human weakness. Demonicheskoe mirosozertsanie, Slim and logical speeches Demon, in Novice - premature cry of agony.
Demonic - a common poetic mood, is composed of anger and contempt; than becoming more mature poet's talent, the more real it expressed the mood of the chord and broken down into more specific, but more certain motifs.
In "Duma" is based on the same Lermontov feelings about "light" and "peace", but they are designed to tactile, historically accurate social phenomena: "land", so haughtily degrading Demon, gives way to "our generation", and powerful, but vague pictures and images of Caucasian poems are transformed into life styles and effects. This is the same meaning and the New Year's greetings to 1840 year.
Очевидно, poet quickly went to clear the real creativity, whose inclinations were rooted in his poetic nature; but not without the influence of the collision and remained with all around. That they had to schedule more specific objectives for the anger and satire poet and gradually turn it into a painter of social mores.
Being in Tbilisi, Lermontov began to teach Azerbaijani ("Tatar", of the terminology) language. AT 1837 year in his letter C. BUT. Raevskii Lermontov wrote: "I started to learn Tatar, language, that here, and generally in Asia, needed, as the French in Europe, - Yes, it is a pity, now I do not study up, and later would be useful ... ". Azerbaijani Lermontov taught famous Azerbaijani enlightener Mirza Fatali Akhundov, who served at the time as a translator in the office of Viceroy of the Caucasus.
Returning from the first link, Lermontov brought a lot of new poetry. After the "Death of the Poet", he became one of the most popular writers in Russia, and in the light of it is now perceived quite differently. Lermontov entered the circle of Pushkin's friends, and finally begins to be printed, almost every issue of the magazine A. BUT. Krajewski "Notes of the Fatherland" goes to the new poems of the poet.
16 (28) February 1840 year Lermontov was at a ball at the Countess of Laval, where he quarreled with his son of the French Ambassador Ernest Barant, after which the latter called the poet to a duel. it took 18 February (1 Martha) Pargolovskaya on the road not far from the Black River. Duelists fought with swords, but Lermontov on loss broke the blade, and they switched to guns. The first shot in raids, but missed. Lermontov in turn unloaded gun, shooting in the direction of, after which the participants departed.
Unique version causes no quarrel. According Lermontov indications upon arrest, Barante had insulted the, Lermontov said of him "unfavorable things" in a conversation with "famous special". Secular rumor that particular thought Princess Mary Scherbatov and attributed to her love interest of future duelists. Also there is an opinion, expressed more contemporaries, that the fault lies with the wife of Secretary of Russian Consulate in Hamburg Teresa Bakherakht. Ostensibly Barante fond as she, and Scherbatova, because of what Bakherakht, trying to divert attention from rival Ernest, accidentally quarreled with his Lermontov.
The premise of a quarrel in the house of Laval could be covered in the strained Russian-French relations because of the political situation of those years. It should take into account the anti-French mood Lermontov himself because of the murder of Pushkin Frenchman Georges d'Anthes. using this, detractors back in Lermontov 1839 It was reported Barant Ernest and his father, in "Death of a Poet" is a string, allegedly hurt the national pride of the French. However, this attempt failed incitement, and Lermontov was even invited to the New Year's embassy ball for a personal acquaintance, but cautious attitude to the poet Ernest left. In this way, the basis for an argument could serve all together: as a bias to each other and Lermontov Barante, and intrigue involving Scherbatova and Bakherakht.
For "failure to report a duel" 11 (23) Lermontov was arrested in March; case tried by military court. Barante same, by Nicholas I will, brought to trial I was not. Upon learning of Lermontov's testimony, Ernest was offended and argued, in the light, that the poet was not shot in the direction of, and aiming at the enemy, but missed. In response, Lermontov Barante invited to a secret meeting, which took place 22 Martha (3 April) Arsenalynoy of gaupvahte, which at that time he was the poet. According to the testimony of Lermontov, it is inter alia expressed its intention to re-shoot, if so desired in raids. The court accused the poet in an attempt to arrange a duel again.
By the tribunal's decision, accepted 13 (25) April, Lermontov was transferred back to the Caucasus, in Tengin Infantry Regiment, actually at the forefront of the Caucasian War, where the poet went to the first of May. The sentence he received not so much for a duel, how much of his testimony, which denied the veracity Barante. Lermontov duel version exhibited son ambassador in bad light, and rumors about her came to the French Embassy in Berlin and to Paris. I played a role and the personal animosity of Nicholas I to the poet, preserved even after the first trial of Lermontov. In fact, the court was forced by decree from above to make a harsh decision: send Lermontov in one of the most dangerous places of the war.
The second link in the Caucasus is fundamentally different from that, that awaited him in the Caucasus a few years earlier: then it was a pleasant walk, Lermontov allowed to get acquainted with the Eastern tradition, folklore, travel a lot. Now, however, it was accompanied by the arrival of the Emperor's personal orders not to let the poet with the first line and use it in military operations. Upon arrival to the Caucasus, Lermontov plunged into military life and at the outset distinguished, according to the official report, "Courage and equanimity". In the poem "Valerik" and in a letter to Lopuchin Lermontov says not a word about his exploits.
Secret thoughts Lermontov long been given to the novel. It was conceived as early as first stay in the Caucasus; Princess Mary, Grushnitski and Dr. Werner, according to the same Satina, We were written off from the originals still in 1837 year. aftertreatment, probably, He focused primarily on the personality of the protagonist, whose characteristic has been linked to the poet with the case of self-knowledge and self-criticism.
First, the novel "A Hero of Our Time" existed in the form of individual chapters, printed as a stand-alone story in "Notes of the Fatherland" magazine. But soon his novel, supplemented with new chapters and thus obtain consummation.
The first edition of the novel was quickly sold out, and almost immediately there was a criticism of him. Almost all, except Belinsky, agreed that, Lermontov in the image Pechorin depicted himself, and that such a character can not be a hero of his time. Therefore, the second edition, appeared almost immediately in the following first, It contained the author's foreword, in which he responded to hostile criticism. In the "Introduction" Lermontov had a line between himself and his character and outlined the basic idea of his novel.
AT 1840 he published only lifetime edition of Lermontov's poems, in which he included 26 poems and two poems - "Novice" and "Song about <…> Merchant Kalashnikov ".
Pyatigorsk. The second duel
House in Pyatigorsk, where Lermontov spent the last two months of his life
In winter 1840-1841 years, Once on holiday in St. Petersburg, Lermontov attempted to resign, wishing to devote himself to literature, but I decided not to do it, since my grandmother was against, she hoped, that her grandson will be able to make a career and did not share his passion for literature. Therefore, the spring 1841 the year he was forced to return to his regiment in the Caucasus. On the way to the Caucasus, Lermontov turned on Zemlyansky. He met former brother-A. D. Remy, with whom he had long been familiar - he presented as a sort of a cigarette case with a picture of a hunting dog (now this exhibit is in the museum-reserve "Tarkhany"). Instead of Remy, was appointed to the Novocherkassk, Lermontov dropped in for a visit to an officer of the Life Guards Hussar Regiment A. Л. Potapov, in his estate Semidubravnoe Voronezh - 50 km from the Voronezh and 10 km south-west of Zemlyansky.
Leaving from St. Petersburg it with heavy foreboding - first in Stavropol, where there was a regiment Tengin, then in Pyatigorsk. In Pyatigorsk, there was his quarrel with retired Major Nikolai Martynov. For the first time Lermontov Martynov met with the school guard sub-ensigns, which Martynov graduated a year later Lermontov. AT 1837 by Lermontov, translated from the Guards regiment in Nizhny Novgorod for the poem "On the death of the poet", Martynov, sent to the Caucasus, We spent two weeks in Moscow, often eating breakfast together at Yara. Lermontov visited Moscow home parents Martynov. Subsequently contemporaries considered, that the prototype Princess Mary was Natalia Solomonovna - sister Martynov.
Martynov served in the Horse Guards, I moved to the Caucasus, in linear Cossack regiment and had just left the service. He was very good-looking and with a brilliant secular education. Carrying convenience and habit Circassian costume, he exaggerated tastes and mountaineers, it goes without saying, thereby brought on the ridicule companions, between which Lermontov in the warehouse of his mind was inexorably all. While these jokes were within the boundaries of decency, everything went well, but the water wears away the stone and, and, when Lermontov allowed himself to inappropriate jokes in society ladies ..., these jokes seemed insulting vanity Martynov, and he modestly remarked Lermontov all their irrelevance. But bile and bored with life the person does not leave its victim, and, when they once came together in the house Verzilin, Lermontov continued to crack jokes and taunt Martynov, which the, finally, derived from patience, He said, that finds a means to silence the offender. Spoiled general attention, Lermontov could not give in and answer, that is not afraid of threats draws, and his behavior will not change.
From the readings H. WITH. Martynov, data 17 July 1841 g. the investigation on the case of the duel (original spelling retained):
Since the arrival of his own in Pyatigorsk, Lermontov did not miss a single case, wherever he could tell me something unpleasant. acuity, Kolkata, ridicule to my account in one word, all what can only annoy the person, It is touching to his credit. I showed him, how could, that does not intend to serve as a target for his mind, but he did not seem to notice how, I accept his jokes. Three weeks ago, during his illness, I talked to him about it openly; I asked him to stop, and although he did not promise me anything, otshuchivayas and offering me, in its turn, laugh at them, but actually I stopped for a few days. Then, again took over the former. On the evening in a private house, two days to duel, He called me out of patience, tied to my every word, at every step of showing a clear desire to annoy me. I decided to put an end to. When you exit out of the house, I held his hand so that he walked next to me; all the rest were already ahead. here, I told him, I first asked him, stop this obnoxious jokes for me, but now I warn, that if he again thinks of me to choose a subject for its sharpness, I get him to stop. He did not let me finish and repeated times in succession: - that he was the tone of my message is not pleasant; I can not forbid him to talk about me, what he wants, and to top it said to me,: "Instead of empty threats, You would be much better to do, I had acted. You know that I am the duel never refuse, therefore you do not scare anyone this ". At this time, we have come to his house. I told him, in that case I'll send him his second, - and returned to his. undressing, I told the man, ask me Glebova, when he comes home. A quarter of an hour went to my room Glebov I explained to him what was going on; I asked him to be my second and getting him to agree, I told him that he was the next day at dawn, I went to Lermontov. Glebov, I had tried to persuade me, but I firmly told him, he is from the words of the same Lermontov sees, that in essence, I do not cause, but I was summoned, - and that, therefore,, I was not possible to make the first, step towards reconciliation.
The duel took place 15 July (27 July) 1841 of the year. Lermontov fired up (basic version), Martynov - right in the chest poet.
A Prince. AND. Vasilchikov, events eyewitness, was present at the duel as a second, He told the story of the duel.
The main idea of the author:
in Lermontov were two men: one - a good-natured, for a small circle of close friends, and for those few individuals, to which he had a special respect; another - an arrogant and provocative, for all other acquaintances.
Lermontov's funeral could not be made according to the church rite, despite all the efforts of friends. The official news of his death read as: "On July 15th, about 5 pm, It broke out a terrible storm with thunder and lightning; at this very moment he died lechivshiysya M Pyatigorsk between mountains Beshtau and Mashukov. YU. Lermontov ". According to Prince Vasilchikov, In Petersburg, high society, the death of the poet met recall: "There he and the road" ... In his memoirs, P. P. Вяземский, with the words of adjutant Colonel Luzhin, He noted, that Nicholas I said about it, said: "The dog - a dog's death". However, after, as the Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna, "he broke out and reacted to these words with a bitter reproach", emperor, going into another room to those, who stayed after the service (it took place after the Sunday Liturgy), объявил: "Gentlemen, received notice, that he, who could replace us Pushkin, убит».
Lermontov's funeral held 17 July (29 July) 1841 year at the old cemetery in Pyatigorsk. Carry out his final journey has come a large number of people: residents of Pyatigorsk, holidaymakers, friends and relatives Lermontov, more than fifty officials. Coincidentally, that coffin with Mikhail Yurevich's body bore the brunt of the representatives of all the regiments, in which the poet had to serve: Colonel By. D. BEZOBRAZOV was a representative of the Nizhny Novgorod Dragoon Regiment, n. AND. Lorer - from Tenghinka Infantry, Alexander Frantsevich Tyrant - from the Life Hussars and A. AND. Arnoldi - from Grodno Hussar.
the poet's body rested in Pyatigorsk earth 250 days. 21 January 1842 Year E. BUT. Arsenyev appealed to the emperor with a request to the grandson of the body transportation to Tarkhany. Get top permission, 27 Martha 1842 grandmother, the servants of the poet Lermontov took away the ashes in a lead coffin and zasmolonnom in the family crypt of the village Tarkhany.
In Easter week, 21 April (3 May) 1842, mournful procession arrived in Tarkhany. Delivered from Pyatigorsk Lermontov's coffin with the body was set for two days for a last farewell in the church of the Archangel Michael. 23 April (5 May) 1842 in the family chapel-tomb burial place, near the graves of his mother and grandfather.